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Transplantation Immunology

Despite major advances over the last decades, long-term outcome after organ transplantation remains limited and immune-mediated injury continues to be a leading cause of graft loss.

Our overall aim is to improve long-term outcome after organ transplantation through better control of the immune response towards the graft.

Pre-clinical research

The indispensable lifelong treatment with immunosuppressive drugs is only partially effective in inhibiting chronic graft loss and is accompanied by severe side effects. Therefore, the intentional establishment donor-specific immunological tolerance remains the ultimate goal of transplantation research.

We focus on inducing tolerance through the transplantation of donor hematopoietic stem cells and the establishment of mixed chimerism (i.e. coexistence of donor and recipient hematopoietic cells in the host). This strategy leads to a robust state of transplantation tolerance and has been demonstrated to work not only in rodents, but also in large animals and notably in pilot series of renal transplant recipients in the clinic. However, no protocol is currently ready for widespread clinical translation due to remaining toxicities. A critical step towards the goal of non-toxic protocols is the use of regulatory T cell (Treg) cell therapy as part of chimerism-based tolerance regimens.

Moreover, chimerism-based tolerance induction has been extended to other immunological disorders, in particular IgE-mediated allergy. Through the transfer of allergen-expressing hematopoietic cells the allergic immune response was permanently tolerized in proof-of-concept experiments.

In our pre-clinical research we use various mouse models, including models of vascularized heart transplantation, regulatory T cell transfer and bone marrow transplantation.

Clinical research

We are currently translating our recently developed pre-clinical Treg-based chimerism treatment protocol to the setting of clinical kidney transplantation. In an ongoing single-center phase I/II trial HLA-mismatched living donor kidney transplant recipients are treated with a combination cell therapy consisting of the administration of polyclonal recipient Tregs and donor bone marrow cells ( NCT03867617).

Research platform transplantation

Transplantation is one of six defined areas of research of the MedUni Vienna. The research platform transplantation (, which is co-ordinated by Thomas Wekerle together with Rainer Oberbauer, promotes the research efforts in the field of transplantation at the MedUni Vienna through various activities, including an international seminar series and a start-up grant program.


Thomas Wekerle | © MedUni Wien/feelimage


Professor of Transplantation Immunology

Christoph Schwarz | © MedUni Wien/feelimage

Christoph SCHWARZ, MD, PhD

Moritz Muckenhuber | © MedUni Wien/feelimage


Panagiotis PARSONIDIS, MSc

Predoctoral Fellow

Laurin Rauter | © MedUni Wien/feelimage

Laurin RAUTER, MSc

predoctoral fellow

Anna Weijler | © MedUni Wien/feelimage


predoctoral fellow

Marlena Sophie BURESCH, MSc

diploma student

Verena Kainz | © MedUni Wien/feelimage

Verena KAINZ, MSc

Technical Assistant


(Current and recent)

Period Funding Agency Titel Principal Investigator
2023-2027 EU ECP induction therapy after lung transplantation  Thomas Wekerle
2023 Research Platform Transplantation (Medical University of Vienna) Not all sensitization events are equal - A specific experimental approach to investigate long-lived plasma cells as potential therapeutic target in pregnancy induced allo-sensitization Moritz Muckenhuber
2022-2023 Astrazeneca Observational Study on the Clinical Use of EVUSHELD (AZD7442) in Austria Thomas Wekerle
2022 Research Platform Transplantation (Medical University of Vienna) scRNAseq-based analysis of Treg-NK cell interactions critical for chimerism-based transplantation tolerance Konstantinos Mengrelis
2023-2024 Medical-scientific fund of the Mayor of Vienna Adoptive cell therapy for immunomodulation in organ transplantation Thomas Wekerle
2021 - 2023 Medical-scientific fund of the Mayor of Vienna Rethinking immunosuppressive induction - a safe path towards costimulation blockade-based maintenance in solid organ transplantation Moritz Muckenhuber
2020 - 2024 Danube Allergy Research Cluster (DARC) - Towards Cure of Allergy ( funded by the Federal Government of Lower Austria)  Cell therapy approaches for allergy prevention Thomas Wekerle
2019 - 2022 DOC (OEAW) The role of MHC-specific IgE in antibody-mediated transplant rejection Anna Weijler
2019 - 2024 WWTF Combination cell therapy for immunomodulation in kidney transplantation Thomas Wekerle
2018 - 2022 Austrian Science Fund (FWF)  Mechanisms of IL-2 induced Transplantation Tolerance Nina Pilat-Michalek
2017 - 2021 Teva Pharmaceuticals Europe BV HLA-specific IgE antibodies in organ transplantation (an invest. Initiated study) Thomas Wekerle


One of the main objectives of our group is to provide high quality scientific education and training. Trainees (PhD students, medical students, diploma students, residents, post-docs) are part of a group with an established track record in transplantation immunology research.

They benefit from active national and international collaborations with recognized leaders of their respective fields. Our group actively participates in the PhD programs of the Medical University of Vienna and has extensive experience in training PhDs (with 20 students having successfully completed their PhD so far). Besides, we offer numerous courses and lectures on topics related to our research.

To inquire about opportunities to join our group, please do not hesitate to contact us.



Mengrelis, K., Niederacher, G., Prickler, L., Kainz, V., Weijler, A. M., Rudolph, E., Stanek, V., Eckl-Dorna, J., Baranyi, U., Spittler, A., Focke-Tejkl, M., Bohle, B., Valenta, R., Becker, C. F. W., Wekerle, T. and Linhart, B. 2024. Coupling of a Major Allergen to the Surface of Immune Cells for Use in Prophylactic Cell Therapy for the Prevention of IgE-Mediated Allergy. Cells;13(5); 10.3390/cells13050446

Invited Reviews and Editorials

Weijler, A. M. and Wekerle, T. 2024. Combining Treg Therapy With Donor Bone Marrow Transplantation: Experimental Progress and Clinical Perspective. Transplantation;108(5):1100-8; 10.1097/TP.0000000000004814


Mucha, J., Cho, A., Weijler, A. M., Muckenhuber, M., Hofmann, A. G., Wahrmann, M., Heinzel, A., Linhart, B., Gattinger, P., Valenta, R., Berlakovich, G., Zuckermann, A., Jaksch, P., Oberbauer, R., Wekerle, T. 2023. Prospective assessment of pre-existing and de novo anti-HLA IgE in kidney, liver, lung and heart transplantation. Front Immunol;14:1179036.

Muckenhuber, M., Mucha, J., Mengrelis, K., How, C., Reindl-Schwaighofer, R., Heinzel, A., Kainz, V., Worel, N., Berlakovich, G., Edinger, M., Oberbauer, R., Wekerle, T. 2023. Optimum timing of antithymocyte globulin in relation to adoptive regulatory T cell therapy. Am J Transplant;23(1):84-92.

Prickler, L., Baranyi, U., Mengrelis, K., Weijler, A. M., Kainz, V., Kratzer, B., Steiner, R., Mucha, J., Rudoph, E., Pilat, N., Bohle, B., Strobl, H., Pickl, W. F., Valenta, R., Linhart, B. and Wekerle, T. 2023. Adoptive transfer of allergen-expressing B cells prevents IgE-mediated allergy. Front Immunol;14:1286638; 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1286638

Invited Reviews and Editorials

Mengrelis, K., Muckenhuber, M., Wekerle, T. 2023. Chimerism-based Tolerance Induction in Clinical Transplantation: Its Foundations and Mechanisms. Transplantation. 10.1097/TP.0000000000004589

Muckenhuber, M., Wekerle, T. 2023. T regulatory cell therapy: The price of specificity. Am J Transplant. 10.1016/j.ajt.2023.08.005



Aschauer, C., Jelencsics, K., Hu, K., Gregorich, M., Reindl-Schwaighofer, R., Wenda, S., Wekerle, T., Heinzel, A., Oberbauer, R. 2022. Effects of Reduced-Dose Anti-Human T-Lymphocyte Globulin on Overall and Donor-Specific T-Cell Repertoire Reconstitution in Sensitized Kidney Transplant Recipients. Front Immunol;13:843452.

Benazzo, A., Bozzini, S., Auner, S., Berezhinskiy, H. O., Watzenboeck, M. L., Schwarz, S., Schweiger, T., Klepetko, W., Wekerle, T., Hoetzenecker, K., Meloni, F., Jaksch, P. 2022. Differential expression of circulating miRNAs after alemtuzumab induction therapy in lung transplantation. Sci Rep;12(1):7072.

Budde, K., Rostaing, L., Maggiore, U., Piotti, G., Surace, D., Geraci, S., Procaccianti, C., Nicolini, G., Witzke, O., Kamar, N., Albano, L., Buchler, M., Pascual, J., Gutierrez-Dalmau, A., Kuypers, D., Wekerle, T., Glyda, M., Carmellini, M., Tisone, G., Midtvedt, K., Wennberg, L., Grinyo, J. M. 2022. Prolonged-Release Once-Daily Formulation of Tacrolimus Versus Standard-of-Care Tacrolimus in de novo Kidney Transplant Patients Across Europe. Transpl Int;35:10225.

Unger, L. W., Muckenhuber, M., Mahr, B., Schwarz, C., Pilat, N., Granofszky, N., Regele, H., Wekerle, T. 2022. Chronic CD40L blockade is required for long-term cardiac allograft survival with a clinically relevant CTLA4-Ig dosing regimen. Front Immunol;13:1060576.

Invited Reviews and Editorials

Muckenhuber, M., Wekerle, T., Schwarz, C. 2022. Costimulation blockade and Tregs in solid organ transplantation. Front Immunol;13:969633.

Pilat, N., Wekerle, T., Geissler, E. K., Sprent, J. 2022. Editorial: Immunological Tolerance in Transplantation: More Than Deletion. Front Immunol;13:959115.

Schwarz, C., Muckenhuber, M., Wekerle, T. 2022. Optimizing Costimulation Blockade-Based Immunosuppression. Kidney360;3(12):2005-7.

Wekerle, T. 2022. Editorial on the Research Topic: Immunological Tolerance in Transplantation: More than Deletion. Front Immunol;2022.


Aschauer, C., Jelencsics, K., Hu, K., Heinzel, A., Gregorich, M. G., Vetter, J., Schaller, S., Winkler, S. M., Weinberger, J., Pimenov, L., Gualdoni, G. A., Eder, M., Kainz, A., Troescher, A. R., Regele, H., Reindl-Schwaighofer, R., Wekerle, T., Huppa, J. B., Sykes, M. and Oberbauer, R. 2021. Prospective Tracking of Donor-Reactive T-Cell Clones in the Circulation and Rejecting Human Kidney Allografts. Front Immunol;12:750005; 10.3389/fimmu.2021.750005

Schwarz, C., Mahr, B., Muckenhuber, M., Weijler, A. M., Unger, L. W., Pilat, N., Latus, M., Regele, H. and Wekerle, T. 2021. In vivo Treg expansion under costimulation blockade targets early rejection and improves long-term outcome. Am J Transplant; 10.1111/ajt.16724

Benazzo, A., Cho, A., Nechay, A., Schwarz, S., Frommlet, F., Wekerle, T., Hoetzenecker, K. and Jaksch, P. 2021. Combined low-dose everolimus and lowdose tacrolimus after Alemtuzumab induction therapy: a randomized prospective trial in lung transplantation. Trials;22(6):15;

Steiner, R., Weijler, A. M., Wekerle, T., Sprent, J. and Pilat, N. 2021. Impact of Graft-Resident Leucocytes on Treg Mediated Skin Graft Survival. Front Immunol;12:801595; 10.3389/fimmu.2021.801595

Benazzo, A., Bozzini, S., Auner, S., Akyildiz, H. O., Watzenböck, M., Schwarz, S., Schweiger, T., Klepetko, W., Wekerle, T., Hoetzenecker, K., Meloni, F. and Jaksch, P. 2021. Differential expression of circulating miRNAs after alemtuzumab induction therapy in lung transplantation. submitted;

Budde, K., Rostaing, L., Maggiore, U., Piotti, G., Surace, D., Geraci, S., Procaccianti, C., Nicolini, G., Witzke, O., Kamar, N., Albano, L., Büchler, M., Pascual, J., Gutiérrez-Dalmau, A., Kuypers, D., Wekerle, T., Glyda, M., Carmellini, M., Tisone, G., Midtvedt, K., Wennbert, L. and Grinyo, J. 2021. Prolonged-release once-daily formulation of tacrolimus (LCPT) versus standard-of-care tacrolimus in de novo kidney transplant patients across Europe. Transplant Int;

Invited Reviews and Editorials

Dorofeeva, Y., Shilovskiy, I., Tulaeva, I., Focke-Tejkl, M., Flicker, S., Kudlay, D., Khaitov, M., Karsonova, A., Riabova, K., Karaulov, A., Khanferyan, R., Pickl, W. F., Wekerle, T. and Valenta, R. 2021. Past, present, and future of allergen immunotherapy vaccines. Allergy;76(1):131-49; 10.1111/all.14300


Freidl, R., Gstottner, A., Baranyi, U., Swoboda, I., Stolz, F., Focke-Tejkl, M., Wekerle, T., van Ree, R., Valenta, R. and Linhart, B. 2020. Resistance of parvalbumin to gastrointestinal digestion is required for profound and long-lasting prophylactic oral tolerance. Allergy;75(2):326-35; 10.1111/all.13994

Mahr, B., Pilat, N., Granofszky, N., Muckenhuber, M., Unger, L. W., Weijler, A. M., Wiletel, M., Steiner, R., Dorner, L., Regele, H. and Wekerle, T. 2020. Distinct roles for major and minor antigen barriers in chimerism-based tolerance under irradiation-free conditions. Am J Transplant:10; 10.1111/ajt.16177

Oberbauer, R., Edinger, M., Berlakovich, G., Kalhs, P., Worel, N., Heinze, G., Wolzt, M., Lion, T. and Wekerle, T. 2020. A Prospective Controlled Trial to Evaluate Safety and Efficacy of in vitro Expanded Recipient Regulatory T Cell Therapy and Tocilizumab Together With Donor Bone Marrow Infusion in HLA-Mismatched Living Donor Kidney Transplant Recipients (Trex001). Front Med (Lausanne);7:634260; 10.3389/fmed.2020.634260

Weijler, A. M., Mucha, J., Farkas, A. M., Baranyi, U., Pilat, N., Cho, A., Muckenhuber, M., Hopf, S., Wahrmann, M., Linhart, B., Valenta, R. and Wekerle, T. 2020. Methods to Detect MHC-Specific IgE in Mice and Men. Front Immunol;11:586856; 10.3389/fimmu.2020.586856

Invited Reviews and Editorials

Schwarz, C. and Wekerle, T. 2020. Regulatory cell therapy in kidney transplantation. Transplantation; 10.1097/tp.0000000000003150


Eder, M., Schwarz, C., Kammer, M., Jacobsen, N., Stavroula, M. L., Cowan, M. J., Chongkrairatanakul, T., Gaston, R., Ravanan, R., Ishida, H., Bachmann, A., Alvarez, S., Koch, M., Garrouste, C., Duffner, U. A., Cullis, B., Schaap, N., Medinger, M., Sorensen, S. S., Dauber, E. M., Bohmig, G., Regele, H., Berlakovich, G. A., Wekerle, T. and Oberbauer, R. 2019. Allograft and patient survival after sequential HSCT and kidney transplantation from the same donor-A multicenter analysis. Am J Transplant;19(2):475-87; 10.1111/ajt.14970

Farkas, A. M., Baranyi, U., Bohmig, G. A., Unger, L., Hopf, S., Wahrmann, M., Regele, H., Mahr, B., Schwarz, C., Hock, K., Pilat, N., Kristo, I., Mraz, J., Lupinek, C., Thalhamer, J., Bond, G., Kuessel, L., Wlodek, E., Martin, J., Clatworthy, M., Pettigrew, G., Valenta, R. and Wekerle, T. 2019. Allograft rejection is associated with development of functional IgE specific for donor MHC antigens. J Allergy Clin Immunol;143(1):335-45 e12; 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.06.034

Mahr, B., Pilat, N., Granofszky, N., Wiletel, M., Muckenhuber, M., Maschke, S., Hock, K. and Wekerle, T. 2019. Hybrid resistance to parental bone marrow grafts in nonlethally irradiated mice. Am J Transplant;19(2):591-6; 10.1111/ajt.15146

Pilat, N., Wiletel, M., Weijler, A. M., Steiner, R., Mahr, B., Warren, J., Corpuz, T. M., Wekerle, T., Webster, K. E. and Sprent, J. 2019. Treg-mediated prolonged survival of skin allografts without immunosuppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A;116(27):13508-16; 10.1073/pnas.1903165116

Invited Reviews and Editorials

Schwarz, C. and Wekerle, T. 2019. Blocking CD40/CD40L for Chimerism-based Tolerance: Lost in Translation? Transplantation;103(1):10-2; 10.1097/TP.0000000000002418


Banas, B., Steubl, D., Renders, L., Chittka, D., Banas, M. C., Wekerle, T., Koch, M., Witzke, O., Muhlfeld, A., Sommerer, C., Habicht, A., Hugo, C., Hunig, T., Lindemann, M., Schmidt, T., Rascle, A., Barabas, S., Deml, L., Wagner, R., Kramer, B. K. and Kruger, B. 2018. Clinical validation of a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay-based in vitro diagnostic assay to monitor cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity in kidney transplant recipients: a multicenter, longitudinal, prospective, observational study. Transpl Int;31(4):436-50; 10.1111/tri.13110

Bigenzahn, S., Juergens, B., Mahr, B., Pratschke, J., Koenigsrainer, A., Becker, T., Fuchs, D., Brandacher, G., Kainz, A., Muehlbacher, F. and Wekerle, T. 2018. No augmentation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity through belatacept treatment in liver transplant recipients. Clin Exp Immunol;192(2):233-41; 10.1111/cei.13093

Pilat, N., Mahr, B., Gattringer, M., Baranyi, U. and Wekerle, T. 2018. CTLA4Ig Improves Murine iTreg Induction via TGFbeta and Suppressor Function In Vitro. J Immunol Res;2018:2484825; 10.1155/2018/2484825

Pilat, N., Sabler, P., Klaus, C., Mahr, B., Unger, L., Hock, K., Wiletel, M., Schwarz, C., Kristo, I., Regele, H. and Wekerle, T. 2018. Blockade of adhesion molecule lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 improves long-term heart allograft survival in mixed chimeras. J Heart Lung Transplant;37(9):1119-30; 10.1016/j.healun.2018.03.016

Invited Reviews and Editorials

Schwarz, C., Mahr, B., Muckenhuber, M. and Wekerle, T. 2018. Belatacept/CTLA4Ig: an update and critical appraisal of preclinical and clinical results. Expert Rev Clin Immunol;14(7):583-92; 10.1080/1744666X.2018.1485489


Oturanlar, D., Klepetko, W., Grimm, M., End, A., Wisser, W., Wekerle, T. and Wolner, E. 1992. Management of severe bronchial ischemia after bilateral sequential lung transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg;54(6):1221-2;

Oturanlar, D., Moritz, A., Jakl, R. J., End, A., Wekerle, T., Wisser, W., Grabenwöger, M. and Klepetko, W. 1993. Operative Therapie tracheointestinaler Fisteln. Acta Chir Austriaca;25:189-92;

Wisser, W., Oturanlar, D., Minich, R., Ringl, H., Wekerle, T., Klepetko, W. and Wolner, E. 1993. Closed circuit perfusion of an isolated rabbit lung: A new model for the evaluation of preservation quality of stored lungs. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg;7(2):71-4;

End, A., Dekan, M., Korn, M., Helbich, T., Grabenwöger, M., Mitterbauer, G., Stift, A., Mares, P., Wekerle, T., Wolner, E. and Klepetko, W. 1994. Differentialdiagnose von Rundherden nach Lungentransplantation. Dtsch med Wschr;119:1105-9;

Klepetko, W., Wekerle, T., Moritz, A., Mares, P., Hiesmayer, M., Tschernko, E., Lang, I., Kontrus, M., Wisser, W. and Wolner, E. 1995. Pulmonale Thrombendarterektomie: Die Therapie der chronisch thromboembolischen pulmonalen Hypertension - Initiale chirurgische Erfahrung. Acta Chir Austriaca;27:166-73;

Wisser, W., Ringl, H., Wekerle, T., Wolner, E. and Klepetko, W. 1995. A new flush solution for extended lung preservation. J Heart Lung Transplant;14(2):289-95;

Bohmig, G. A., Wekerle, T., Saemann, M. D., Kovarik, J. and Zlabinger, G. J. 1996. Induction of alloantigen-specific hyporesponsiveness in vitro by n-butyrate: antagonistic effect of cyclosporin A. Transpl Int;9 Suppl 1:S318-22; 10.1007/978-3-662-00818-8_79

Wekerle, T., Klepetko, W., Wisser, W., Senbaklavaci, O., Moidl, R., Hiesmayer, M., Tschernko, E. and Wolner, E. 1996. Lung retransplantation: institutional report on a series of twenty patients. J Heart Lung Transplant;15(2):182-9;

Wisser, W., Klepetko, W., Wekerle, T., Laufer, G., Stift, A., Hiesmayr, M. and Schlick, W. 1996. Tailoring of the lung to overcome size disparities in lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant;15(3):239-42;

Wisser, W., Wekerle, T., Zlabinger, G., Senbaclavaci, O., Zuckermann, A., Klepetko, W. and Wolner, E. 1996. Influence of human leukocyte antigen matching on long-term outcome after lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant;15(12):1209-16;

Artemiou, O., Wieselthaler, G., Zuckermann, A., Wisser, W., Wekerle, T., Senbaklavaci, O., Birsan, T., Dekan, G., Kritzinger, M. and Klepetko, W. 1997. Downsizing of the donor lung: peripheral segmental resections and lobar transplantation. Transplant Proc;29(7):2899-900; 10.1016/s0041-1345(97)00722-7

Wekerle, T., Klepetko, W., Wisser, W., Senbaklavaci, O., Artemiou, O., Zuckermann, A. and Wolner, E. 1997. Incidence and outcome of major non-pulmonary surgical procedures in lung transplant recipients. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg;12(5):718-23; 10.1016/s1010-7940(97)00231-5

Sykes, M., Szot, G. L., Swenson, K., Pearson, D. A. and Wekerle, T. 1998. Separate regulation of peripheral hematopoietic and thymic engraftment. Exp Hematol;26(6):457-65;

Wekerle, T., Sayegh, M. H., Hill, J., Zhao, Y., Chandraker, A., Swenson, K. G., Zhao, G. and Sykes, M. 1998. Extrathymic T cell deletion and allogeneic stem cell engraftment induced with costimulatory blockade is followed by central T cell tolerance. J Exp Med;187(12):2037-44; 10.1084/jem.187.12.2037

Böhmig, G. A., Krieger, P. M., Säemann, M. D., Ullrich, R., Karimi, H., Wekerle, T., Mühlbacher, F. and Zlabinger, G. J. 1999. Stable prodrugs of n-butyric acid: suppression of T cell alloresponses in vitro and prolongation of heart allograft survival in a fully allogeneic rat strain combination. Transpl Immunol;7(4):221-7;

Wekerle, T., Sayegh, M. H., Chandraker, A., Swenson, K. G., Zhao, Y. and Sykes, M. 1999. Role of peripheral clonal deletion in tolerance induction with bone marrow transplantation and costimulatory blockade. Transplant Proc;31(1-2):680; 10.1016/s0041-1345(98)01605-4

Wekerle, T., Sayegh, M. H., Ito, H., Hill, J., Chandraker, A., Pearson, D. A., Swenson, K. G., Zhao, G. and Sykes, M. 1999. Anti-CD154 or CTLA4Ig obviates the need for thymic irradiation in a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen for the induction of mixed hematopoietic chimerism and tolerance. Transplantation;68(9):1348-55; 10.1097/00007890-199911150-00022

Wekerle, T., Kurtz, J., Ito, H., Ronquillo, J. V., Dong, V., Zhao, G., Shaffer, J., Sayegh, M. H. and Sykes, M. 2000. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with co-stimulatory blockade induces macrochimerism and tolerance without cytoreductive host treatment. Nat Med;6(4):464-9; 10.1038/74731

Zhao, Y., Swenson, K., Wekerle, T., Rodriguez-Barbosa, J. I., Arn, J. S. and Sykes, M. 2000. The critical role of mouse CD4+ cells in the rejection of highly disparate xenogeneic pig thymus grafts. Xenotransplantation;7(2):129-37; 10.1034/j.1399-3089.2000.00048.x

Kurtz, J., Ito, H., Wekerle, T., Shaffer, J. and Sykes, M. 2001. Mechanisms involved in the establishment of tolerance through costimulatory blockade and BMT: lack of requirement for CD40L-mediated signaling for tolerance or deletion of donor-reactive CD4+ cells. Am J Transplant;1(4):339-49; 10.1034/j.1600-6143.2001.10409.x

Wekerle, T., Kurtz, J., Sayegh, M. H., Ito, H., Wells, A. D., Bensinger, S., Shaffer, J., Turka, L. A. and Sykes, M. 2001. Peripheral deletion after bone marrow transplantation with costimulatory blockade has features of both activation-induced cell death and passive cell death. Journal of Immunology;166(4):2311-6; DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.166.4.2311

Wekerle, T., Nikolic, B., Pearson, D. A., Swenson, K. G. and Sykes, M. 2002. Minimal conditioning required in a murine model of T cell depletion, thymic irradiation and high-dose bone marrow transplantation for the induction of mixed chimerism and tolerance. Transpl Int;15(5):248-53; 10.1007/s00147-002-0411-3

Blaha, P., Bigenzahn, S., Koporc, Z., Schmid, M., Langer, F., Selzer, E., Bergmeister, H., Wrba, F., Kurtz, J., Kiss, C., Roth, E., Muehlbacher, F., Sykes, M. and Wekerle, T. 2003. The influence of immunosuppressive drugs on tolerance induction through bone marrow transplantation with costimulation blockade. Blood;101(7):2886-93; 10.1182/blood-2002-10-3014

Birsan, T., Loinig, C., Bodingbauer, M., Wekerle, T., Rockenschaub, S., Berlakovich, G., Soliman, T., Muhlbacher, F. and Steininger, R. 2004. Comparison between C0 and C2 monitoring in de novo renal transplant recipients: Retrospective analysis of a single-center experience. Transplantation;78(12):1787-91;

Takeuchi, Y., Ito, H., Kurtz, J., Wekerle, T., Ho, L. and Sykes, M. 2004. Earlier low-dose TBI or DST overcomes CD8+ T-cell-mediated alloresistance to allogeneic marrow in recipients of anti-CD40L. Am J Transplant;4(1):31-40;

Andres, A., Toso, C., Morel, P., Bosco, D., Bucher, P., Oberholzer, J., Mathe, Z., Mai, G., Wekerle, T., Berney, T. and Buhler, L. 2005. Macrophage depletion prolongs discordant but not concordant islet xenograft survival. Transplantation;79(5):543-9;

Andres, A., Toso, C., Morel, P., Bosco, D., Bucher, P., Oberholzer, J., Mathe, Z., Mai, G., Wekerle, T., Berney, T. and Buhler, L. H. 2005. Phylogenetic disparity influences the predominance of direct over indirect pathway of antigen presentation in islet xenotransplantation. Transplant Proc;37(1):463-5; 10.1016/j.transproceed.2004.11.074

Bigenzahn, S., Blaha, P., Koporc, Z., Pree, I., Selzer, E., Bergmeister, H., Wrba, F., Heusser, C., Wagner, K., Muehlbacher, F. and Wekerle, T. 2005. The role of non-deletional tolerance mechanisms in a murine model of mixed chimerism with costimulation blockade. Am J Transplant;5(6):1237-47; 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2005.00862.x

Blaha, P., Bigenzahn, S., Koporc, Z., Sykes, M., Muehlbacher, F. and Wekerle, T. 2005. Short-term immunosuppression facilitates induction of mixed chimerism and tolerance after BMT without cytoreductive conditioning. Transplantation;80:237-43;

Bucher, P., Gang, M., Morel, P., Mathe, Z., Bosco, D., Pernin, N., Wekerle, T., Berney, T. and Buhler, L. H. 2005. Transplantation of discordant xenogeneic islets using repeated therapy with anti-CD154. Transplantation;79(11):1545-52; 10.1097/

Fehr, T., Takeuchi, Y., Kurtz, J., Wekerle, T. and Sykes, M. 2005. Early regulation of CD8 T cell alloreactivity by CD4+CD25- T cells in recipients of anti-CD154 antibody and allogeneic BMT is followed by rapid peripheral deletion of donor-reactive CD8+ T cells, precluding a role for sustained regulation. Eur J Immunol;35(9):2679-90; 10.1002/eji.200526190

Mai, G., Bucher, P., Morel, P., Mei, J., Bosco, D., Andres, A., Mathe, Z., Wekerle, T., Berney, T. and Buhler, L. H. 2005. Anti-CD154 mAb treatment but not recipient CD154 deficiency leads to long-term survival of xenogeneic islet grafts. Am J Transplant;5(5):1021-31;

Mai, G., Bucher, P., Morel, P., Mei, J., Bosco, D., Andres, A., Mathe, Z., Wekerle, T., Berney, T. and Buhler, L. H. 2005. Role of CD40-CD154 pathway in the rejection of concordant and discordant xenogeneic islets. Transplant Proc;37(1):460-2; 10.1016/j.transproceed.2004.12.306

Vincenti, F., Larsen, C., Durrbach, A., Wekerle, T., Nashan, B., Blancho, G., Lang, P., Grinyo, J., Halloran, P. F., Solez, K., Hagerty, D., Levy, E., Zhou, W., Natarajan, K., Charpentier, B. and Belatacept Study, G. 2005. Costimulation blockade with belatacept in renal transplantation. N Engl J Med;353(8):770-81; 10.1056/NEJMoa050085

Bodingbauer, M., Pakrah, B., Steininger, R., Berlakovich, G., Rockenschaub, S., Wekerle, T. and Muehlbacher, F. 2006. The advantage of allocating kidneys from old cadaveric donors to old recipients: a single-center experience. Clin Transplant;20(4):471-5; 10.1111/j.1399-0012.2006.00508.x

Koporc, Z., Bigenzahn, S., Blaha, P., Fariborz, E., Selzer, E., Sykes, M., Muehlbacher, F. and Wekerle, T. 2006. Induction of mixed chimerism through transplantation of CD45-congenic mobilized peripheral blood stem cells after nonmyeloablative irradiation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant;12(3):284-92; 10.1016/j.bbmt.2005.11.011

Perco, P., Blaha, P., Kainz, A., Mayer, B., Hauser, P., Wekerle, T. and Oberbauer, R. 2006. Molecular signature of mice T lymphocytes following tolerance induction by allogeneic BMT and CD40-CD40L costimulation blockade. Transpl Int;19(2):146-57; 10.1111/j.1432-2277.2005.00241.x

Bodingbauer, M., Wekerle, T., Pakrah, B., Roschger, P., Peck-Radosavljevic, M., Silberhumer, G., Grampp, S., Rockenschaub, S., Berlakovich, G., Steininger, R., Klaushofer, K., Oberbauer, R. and Muhlbacher, F. 2007. Prophylactic bisphosphonate treatment prevents bone fractures after liver transplantation. Am J Transplant;7(7):1763-9; 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2007.01844.x

Linhart, B., Bigenzahn, S., Hartl, A., Lupinek, C., Thalhamer, J., Valenta, R. and Wekerle, T. 2007. Costimulation blockade inhibits allergic sensitization but does not affect established allergy in a murine model of grass pollen allergy. J Immunol;178:3924-31;

Pree, I., Bigenzahn, S., Fuchs, D., Koporc, Z., Nierlich, P., Winkler, C., Brandacher, G., Sykes, M., Muehlbacher, F., Langer, F. and Wekerle, T. c. e. 2007. CTLA4Ig promotes the induction of hematopoietic chimerism and tolerance independently of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase. Transplantation;83(5):663-7; 10.1097/

Silberhumer, G. R., Pokorny, H., Hetz, H., Herkner, H., Rasoul-Rockenschaub, S., Soliman, T., Wekerle, T., Berlakovich, G. A., Steininger, R. and Muehlbacher, F. 2007. Combination of extended donor criteria and changes in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score predict patient survival and primary dysfunction in liver transplantation: a retrospective analysis. Transplantation;83(5):588-92; 10.1097/

Baranyi, U., Linhart, B., Pilat, N., Gattringer, M., Bagley, J., Muehlbacher, F., Iacomini, J., Valenta, R. and Wekerle, T. 2008. Tolerization of a type I allergic immune response through transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells. J Immunol;180(12):8168-75; 10.4049/jimmunol.180.12.8168

Fehr, T., Wang, S., Haspot, F., Kurtz, J., Blaha, P., Hogan, T., Chittenden, M., Wekerle, T. and Sykes, M. 2008. Rapid deletional peripheral CD8 T cell tolerance induced by allogeneic bone marrow: role of donor class II MHC and B cells. J Immunol;181(6):4371-80; 10.4049/jimmunol.181.6.4371

Koporc, Z., Pilat, N., Nierlich, P., Blaha, P., Bigenzahn, S., Pree, I., Selzer, E., Sykes, M., Muehlbacher, F. and Wekerle, T. 2008. Murine mobilized peripheral blood stem cells have a lower capacity than bone marrow to induce mixed chimerism and tolerance. Am J Transplant;8(10):2025-36; 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02371.x

Misof, B. M., Bodingbauer, M., Roschger, P., Wekerle, T., Pakrah, B., Haas, M., Kainz, A., Oberbauer, R., Muhlbacher, F. and Klaushofer, K. 2008. Short-term effects of high-dose zoledronic acid treatment on bone mineralization density distribution after orthotopic liver transplantation. Calcif Tissue Int;83(3):167-75; 10.1007/s00223-008-9161-2

Muller, Y. D., Mai, G., Morel, P., Serre-Beinier, V., Gonelle-Gispert, C., Yung, G. P., Ehirchiou, D., Wyss, J. C., Bigenzahn, S., Irla, M., Heusser, C., Golshayan, D., Seebach, J. D., Wekerle, T. and Buhler, L. H. 2010. Anti-CD154 mAb and rapamycin induce T regulatory cell mediated tolerance in rat-to-mouse islet transplantation. PLoS One;5(4):e10352; 10.1371/journal.pone.0010352

Nierlich, P. N., Klaus, C., Bigenzahn, S., Pilat, N., Koporc, Z., Pree, I., Baranyi, U., Taniguchi, M., Muehlbacher, F. and Wekerle, T. 2010. The role of natural killer T cells in costimulation blockade-based mixed chimerism. Transpl Int;23(11):1179-89; 10.1111/j.1432-2277.2010.01120.x

Pilat, N., Baranyi, U., Klaus, C., Jaeckel, E., Mpofu, N., Wrba, F., Golshayan, D., Muehlbacher, F. and Wekerle, T. 2010. Treg-Therapy Allows Mixed Chimerism and Transplantation Tolerance Without Cytoreductive Conditioning. American Journal of Transplantation;10(4):751-62; 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2010.03018.x

Vincenti, F., Blancho, G., Durrbach, A., Friend, P., Grinyo, J., Halloran, P. F., Klempnauer, J., Lang, P., Larsen, C. P., Muhlbacher, F., Nashan, B., Soulillou, J. P., Vanrenterghem, Y., Wekerle, T., Agarwal, M., Gujrathi, S., Shen, J., Shi, R., Townsend, R. and Charpentier, B. 2010. Five-year safety and efficacy of belatacept in renal transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol;21(9):1587-96; 10.1681/ASN.2009111109

Baranyi, U., Gattringer, M., Boehm, A., Marth, K., Focke-Tejkl, M., Bohle, B., Blatt, K., Valent, P., Valenta, R. and Wekerle, T. 2011. Expression of a major plant allergen as membrane-anchored and secreted protein in human cells with preserved T cell and B cell epitopes. Int Arch Allergy Immunol;156(3):259-66; 10.1159/000323733

Kristo, I., Wilflingseder, J., Kainz, A., Marschalek, J., Wekerle, T., Muhlbacher, F., Oberbauer, R. and Bodingbauer, M. 2011. Effect of intraportal infusion of tacrolimus on ischaemic reperfusion injury in orthotopic liver transplantation: a randomized controlled trial. Transpl Int;24(9):912-9; 10.1111/j.1432-2277.2011.01284.x

Pilat, N., Klaus, C., Gattringer, M., Jaeckel, E., Wrba, F., Golshayan, D., Baranyi, U. and Wekerle, T. 2011. Therapeutic efficacy of polyclonal tregs does not require rapamycin in a low-dose irradiation bone marrow transplantation model. Transplantation;92(3):280-8; 10.1097/TP.0b013e3182241133

Baranyi, U., Pilat, N., Gattringer, M., Linhart, B., Klaus, C., Schwaiger, E., Iacomini, J., Valenta, R. and Wekerle, T. 2012. Persistent molecular microchimerism induces long-term tolerance towards a clinically relevant respiratory allergen. Clin Exp Allergy;42(8):1282-92; 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2012.04049.x

Cippa, P. E., Kraus, A. K., Lindenmeyer, M. T., Chen, J., Guimezanes, A., Bardwell, P. D., Wekerle, T., Wuthrich, R. P. and Fehr, T. 2012. Resistance to ABT-737 in activated T lymphocytes: molecular mechanisms and reversibility by inhibition of the calcineurin-NFAT pathway. Cell Death Dis;3:e299; 10.1038/cddis.2012.38

Pilat, N., Schoppmann, S., Stift, J., Mazal, P., Wekerle, T. and Berlakovich, G. A. 2012. No evidence for recipient-derived hepatocytes in serial biopsies of sex-mismatched liver transplants. Transplantation;94(9):953-7; 10.1097/TP.0b013e318269e68d

Schwaiger, E., Klaus, C., Matheeussen, V., Baranyi, U., Pilat, N., Ramsey, H., Korom, S., De Meester, I. and Wekerle, T. 2012. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV/CD26) inhibition does not improve engraftment of unfractionated syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow after nonmyeloablative conditioning. Exp Hematol;40(2):97-106; 10.1016/j.exphem.2011.10.010

Sucher, R., Fischler, K., Oberhuber, R., Kronberger, I., Margreiter, C., Ollinger, R., Schneeberger, S., Fuchs, D., Werner, E. R., Watschinger, K., Zelger, B., Tellides, G., Pilat, N., Pratschke, J., Margreiter, R., Wekerle, T. and Brandacher, G. 2012. IDO and regulatory T cell support are critical for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated Ag-4 Ig-mediated long-term solid organ allograft survival. J Immunol;188(1):37-46; 10.4049/jimmunol.1002777

Baranyi, U., Gattringer, M., Farkas, A. M., Hock, K., Pilat, N., Iacomini, J., Valenta, R. and Wekerle, T. 2013. The site of allergen expression in hematopoietic cells determines the degree and quality of tolerance induced through molecular chimerism. Eur J Immunol;43(9):2451-60; 10.1002/eji.201243277

Cippa, P. E., Gabriel, S. S., Chen, J., Bardwell, P. D., Bushell, A., Guimezanes, A., Kraus, A. K., Wekerle, T., Wuthrich, R. P. and Fehr, T. 2013. Targeting apoptosis to induce stable mixed haematopoietic chimerism and long-term allograft survival without myelosuppressive conditioning in mice. Blood;122(9):1669-77; 10.1182/blood-2012-09-453944

Gattringer, M., Baranyi, U., Pilat, N., Hock, K., Klaus, C., Buchberger, E., Ramsey, H., Iacomini, J., Valenta, R. and Wekerle, T. 2013. Engraftment of retrovirally transduced Bet v 1-GFP expressing bone marrow cells leads to allergen-specific tolerance. Immunobiology;218(9):1139-46; 10.1016/j.imbio.2013.03.007

Hock, K., Oberhuber, R., Lee, Y. L., Wrba, F., Wekerle, T. and Tullius, S. G. 2013. Immunosenescence does not abrogate engraftment of murine allogeneic bone marrow. Transplantation;95(12):1431-8; 10.1097/TP.0b013e3182954618

Ramsey, H., Pilat, N., Hock, K., Klaus, C., Unger, L., Schwarz, C., Baranyi, U., Gattringer, M., Schwaiger, E., Wrba, F. and Wekerle, T. 2013. Anti-LFA-1 or rapamycin overcome costimulation blockade-resistant rejection in sensitized bone marrow recipients. Transpl Int;26(2):206-18; 10.1111/tri.12021

Ahmadi, S. M., Holzl, M. A., Mayer, E., Wekerle, T. and Heitger, A. 2014. CTLA4-Ig preserves thymus-derived T regulatory cells. Transplantation;98(11):1158-64; 10.1097/TP.0000000000000421

Cippa, P. E., Gabriel, S. S., Kraus, A. K., Chen, J., Wekerle, T., Guimezanes, A., Wuthrich, R. P. and Fehr, T. 2014. Bcl-2 inhibition to overcome memory cell barriers in transplantation. Am J Transplant;14(2):333-42; 10.1111/ajt.12554

Hock, K., Pilat, N., Baranyi, U., Mahr, B., Gattringer, M., Klaus, C. and Wekerle, T. 2014. Donor CD4 T Cells Trigger Costimulation Blockade-Resistant Donor Bone Marrow Rejection Through Bystander Activation Requiring IL-6. Am J Transplant;14(9):2011-22; 10.1111/ajt.12823

Klintmalm, G. B., Feng, S., Lake, J. R., Vargas, H. E., Wekerle, T., Agnes, S., Brown, K. A., Nashan, B., Rostaing, L., Meadows-Shropshire, S., Agarwal, M., Harler, M. B. and Garcia-Valdecasas, J. C. 2014. Belatacept-based immunosuppression in de novo liver transplant recipients: 1-year experience from a phase II randomized study. Am J Transplant;14(8):1817-27; 10.1111/ajt.12810

Pilat, N., Farkas, A. M., Mahr, B., Schwarz, C., Unger, L., Hock, K., Oberhuber, R., Aumayr, K., Wrba, F. and Wekerle, T. 2014. T-regulatory cell treatment prevents chronic rejection of heart allografts in a murine mixed chimerism model. J Heart Lung Transplant;33(4):429-37; 10.1016/j.healun.2013.11.004

Schwarz, C., Rasoul-Rockenschaub, S., Soliman, T., Berlakovich, G., Steininger, R., Muehlbacher, F. and Wekerle, T. 2014. Belatacept treatment for 2 years after liver transplantation in not associated with operational tolerance. Clin Transplant;29(1):85-9; 10.111/ctr.12483

Pilat, N., Klaus, C., Hock, K., Baranyi, U., Unger, L., Mahr, B., Farkas, A. M., Wrba, F. and Wekerle, T. 2015. Polyclonal Recipient nTregs Are Superior to Donor or Third-Party Tregs in the Induction of Transplantation Tolerance. J Immunol Res;2015:562935; 10.1155/2015/562935

Pilat, N., Klaus, C., Schwarz, C., Hock, K., Oberhuber, R., Schwaiger, E., Gattringer, M., Ramsey, H., Baranyi, U., Zelger, B., Brandacher, G., Wrba, F. and Wekerle, T. 2015. Rapamycin and CTLA4Ig Synergize to Induce Stable Mixed Chimerism Without the Need for CD40 Blockade. Am J Transplant;15(6):1568-79; 10.1111/ajt.13154

Schwarz, C., Klaus, D. A., Tudor, B., Fleischmann, E., Wekerle, T., Roth, G., Bodingbauer, M. and Kaczirek, K. 2015. Transection Speed and Impact on Perioperative Inflammatory Response - A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Stapler Hepatectomy and CUSA Resection. PLoS One;10(10):e0140314; 10.1371/journal.pone.0140314

Schwarz, C., Mayerhoffer, S., Berlakovich, G. A., Steininger, R., Soliman, T., Watschinger, B., Bohmig, G. A., Eskandary, F., Konig, F., Muhlbacher, F. and Wekerle, T. 2015. Long-term outcome of belatacept therapy in de novo kidney transplant recipients - a case-match analysis. Transpl Int;28(7):820-7; 10.1111/tri.12544

Baranyi, U., Farkas, A., Hock, K., Mahr, B., Linhart, B., Gattringer, M., Focke-Tejkl, M., Petersen, A., Wrba, F., Rulicke, T., Valenta, R. and Wekerle, T. 2016. Cell therapy for prophylactic tolerance in IgE-mediated allergy. EBioMedicine;7:230-9; 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.03.028

Bigenzahn, S., Pree, I., Klaus, C., Pilat, N., Mahr, B., Schwaiger, E., Nierlich, P., Wrba, F. and Wekerle, T. 2016. Minor Antigen Disparities Impede Induction of Long Lasting Chimerism and Tolerance through Bone Marrow Transplantation with Costimulation Blockade. J Immunol Res;2016:8635721; 10.1155/2016/8635721

Durrbach, A., Pestana, J. M., Florman, S., Del Carmen Rial, M., Rostaing, L., Kuypers, D., Matas, A., Wekerle, T., Polinsky, M., Meier-Kriesche, H. U., Munier, S. and Grinyo, J. M. 2016. Long-Term Outcomes in Belatacept-Treated vs. Cyclosporine-Treated Recipients of Extended Criteria Donor Kidneys: Final Results from BENEFIT-EXT, a Phase III Randomized Study. Am J Transplant;16(11):3192-201; 10.1111/ajt.13830

Gabriel, S. S., Bon, N., Chen, J., Wekerle, T., Bushell, A., Fehr, T. and Cippa, P. E. 2016. Distinctive Expression of Bcl-2 Factors in Regulatory T Cells Determines a Pharmacological Target to Induce Immunological Tolerance. Front Immunol;7:73; 10.3389/fimmu.2016.00073

Gattringer, M., Baranyi, U., Pilat, N., Hock, K., Klaus, C., Ramsey, H. E., Wrba, F., Valenta, R. and Wekerle, T. 2016. Anti-OX40L alone or in combination with anti-CD40L and CTLA4Ig does not inhibit the humoral and cellular response to a major grass pollen allergen. Clin Exp Allergy;46(2):354-64; 10.1111/cea.12661

Mahr, B., Unger, L., Hock, K., Pilat, N., Baranyi, U., Schwarz, C., Maschke, S., Farkas, A. M. and Wekerle, T. 2016. IL-2/alpha-IL-2 Complex Treatment Cannot Be Substituted for the Adoptive Transfer of Regulatory T cells to Promote Bone Marrow Engraftment. PLoS One;11(1):e0146245; 10.1371/journal.pone.0146245

Massart, A., Pallier, A., Pascual, J., Viklicky, O., Budde, K., Spasovski, G., Klinger, M., Sever, M. S., Sorensen, S. S., Hadaya, K., Oberbauer, R., Dudley, C., De Fijter, J. W., Yussim, A., Hazzan, M., Wekerle, T., Berglund, D., De Biase, C., Perez-Saez, M. J., Muhlfeld, A., Orlando, G., Clemente, K., Lai, Q., Pisani, F., Kandus, A., Baas, M., Bemelman, F., Ponikvar, J. B., Mazouz, H., Stratta, P., Subra, J. F., Villemain, F., Hoitsma, A., Braun, L., Cantarell, M. C., Colak, H., Courtney, A., Frasca, G. M., Howse, M., Naesens, M., Reischig, T., Seron, D., Seyahi, N., Tugmen, C., Alonso Hernandez, A., Bena, L., Biancone, L., Cuna, V., Diaz-Corte, C., Dufay, A., Gaasbeek, A., Garnier, A., Gatault, P., Gentil Govantes, M. A., Glowacki, F., Gross, O., Hurault de Ligny, B., Huynh-Do, U., Janbon, B., Jimenez Del Cerro, L. A., Keller, F., La Manna, G., Lauzurica, R., Le Monies De Sagazan, H., Thaiss, F., Legendre, C., Martin, S., Moal, M. C., Noel, C., Pillebout, E., Piredda, G. B., Puga, A. R., Sulowicz, W., Tuglular, S., Prokopova, M., Chesneau, M., Le Moine, A., Guerif, P., Soulillou, J. P., Abramowicz, M., Giral, M., Racape, J., Maggiore, U., Brouard, S. and Abramowicz, D. 2016. The DESCARTES-Nantes survey of kidney transplant recipients displaying clinical operational tolerance identifies 35 new tolerant patients and 34 almost tolerant patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant;31(6):1002-13; 10.1093/ndt/gfv437

Pilat, N., Mahr, B., Unger, L., Hock, K., Schwarz, C., Farkas, A., Wrba, F. and Wekerle, T. 2016. Incomplete clonal deletion as prerequisite for tissue-specific minor antigen tolerization. JCI Insight;1(7):e85911; 10.1172/jci.insight.85911

Schwarz, C., Lawitschka, A., Bohmig, G. A., Dauber, E. M., Greinix, H., Kozakowski, N., Muhlbacher, F., Berlakovich, G. A. and Wekerle, T. 2016. Kidney Transplantation With Corticosteroids Alone After Haploidentical HSCT From The Same Donor. Transplantation;100(10):2219-21; 10.1097/TP.0000000000001213

Schwarz, C., Unger, L., Mahr, B., Aumayr, K., Regele, H., Farkas, A. M., Hock, K., Pilat, N. and Wekerle, T. 2016. The Immunosuppressive Effect of CTLA4 Immunoglobulin Is Dependent on Regulatory T Cells at Low But Not High Doses. Am J Transplant;16(12):3404-15; 10.1111/ajt.13872

Duran-Struuck, R., Sondermeijer, H. P., Buhler, L., Alonso-Guallart, P., Zitsman, J., Kato, Y., Wu, A., McMurchy, A. N., Woodland, D., Griesemer, A., Martinez, M., Boskovic, S., Kawai, T., Cosimi, A. B., Wuu, C. S., Slate, A., Mapara, M., Baker, S., Tokarz, R., D'Agati, V., Hammer, S., Pereira, M., Lipkin, W. I., Wekerle, T., Levings, M. and Sykes, M. 2017. Effect of Ex Vivo-Expanded Recipient Regulatory T Cells on Hematopoietic Chimerism and Kidney Allograft Tolerance Across MHC Barriers in Cynomolgus Macaques. Transplantation;101(2):274-83; 10.1097/TP.0000000000001559

Freidl, R., Gstoettner, A., Baranyi, U., Swoboda, I., Stolz, F., Focke-Tejkl, M., Wekerle, T., van Ree, R., Valenta, R. and Linhart, B. 2017. Blocking antibodies induced by immunization with a hypoallergenic parvalbumin mutant reduce allergic symptoms in a mouse model of fish allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol;139(6):1897-905 e1; 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.10.018

Granofszky, N., Farkas, A. M., Muckenhuber, M., Mahr, B., Unger, L., Maschke, S., Pilat, N., Holly, R., Wiletel, M., Regele, H. and Wekerle, T. 2017. Anti-Interleukin-6 Promotes Allogeneic Bone Marrow Engraftment and Prolonged Graft Survival in an Irradiation-Free Murine Transplant Model. Front Immunol;8:821; 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00821

Hock, K., Laengle, J., Kuznetsova, I., Egorov, A., Hegedus, B., Dome, B., Wekerle, T. C.-C. A., Sachet, M. and Bergmann, M. 2017. Oncolytic influenza A virus expressing interleukin-15 decreases tumor growth in vivo. Surgery;161(3):735-46; 10.1016/j.surg.2016.08.045

Mahr, B., Pilat, N., Maschke, S., Granofszky, N., Schwarz, C., Unger, L., Hock, K., Farkas, A. M., Klaus, C., Regele, H. and Wekerle, T. 2017. Regulatory T Cells Promote Natural Killer Cell Education in Mixed Chimeras. Am J Transplant;17(12):3049-59; 10.1111/ajt.14342

Narayanan, M., Freidl, R., Focke-Tejkl, M., Baranyi, U., Wekerle, T., Valenta, R. and Linhart, B. 2017. A B Cell Epitope Peptide Derived from the Major Grass Pollen Allergen Phl p 1 Boosts Allergen-Specific Secondary Antibody Responses without Allergen-Specific T Cell Help. J Immunol;198(4):1685-95; 10.4049/jimmunol.1501741

Schwarz, C., Fitschek, F., Bar-Or, D., Klaus, D. A., Tudor, B., Fleischmann, E., Roth, G., Tamandl, D., Wekerle, T., Gnant, M., Bodingbauer, M. and Kaczirek, K. 2017. Inflammatory response and oxidative stress during liver resection. PLoS One;12(10):e0185685; 10.1371/journal.pone.0185685


Invited Reviews and Editorials

Grimm, M., Stift, A., Wisser, W., Grabenwöger, M., Wieselthaler, G., Schlechta, B., Schrögendorfer, K., Wekerle, T., Wolner, W. and Klepetko, W. 1995. Sequentielle, bilaterale Lungentransplantation in Wien. Acta Chir Austriaca;27:100-3;

Sykes, M., Ohdan, H., Manilay, J. O., Wekerle, T. and Yang, Y. G. 1998. Hematopoietic chimerism and tolerance of T cells, B cells, and NK cells. Transplant Proc;30(8):4020; 10.1016/s0041-1345(98)01325-6

Wekerle, T., Sachs, D. H. and Sykes, M. 1998. Mixed chimerism for the induction of tolerance: potential applicability in clinical composite tissue grafting. Transplant Proc;30(6):2708-10; 10.1016/s0041-1345(98)00793-3

Wekerle, T., Kurtz, J. and Sykes, M. 1999. Mixed hematopoietic chimerism and transplantation tolerance: insights from experimental models. Curr Opin Organ Transplant;4:44-9;

Wekerle, T. and Sykes, M. 1999. Mixed chimerism as an approach for the induction of transplantation tolerance. Transplantation;68:459-67;

Wekerle, T. 2001. Transplantation tolerance induced by mixed chimerism. J Heart Lung Transplant;20(8):816-23; 10.1016/s1053-2498(01)00265-0

Wekerle, T., Kiss, C., Bodingbauer, M. and Langer, F. 2001. Toleranzentwicklung bei Herz- und Lungentransplantation. In Tacrolimus in der Herz- und Lungentransplantation, ed. Reichart, B., pp. 53-60: Pabst Science Publishers

Wekerle, T., Kurtz, J. and Sykes, M. 2001. Strategies for the induction of allograft tolerance. In Cardiac Allograft Rejection, ed. Dec, G. W., Narula, J., Ballester, M. and Carrió, pp. 127-51: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Wekerle, T. and Sykes, M. 2001. Mixed chimerism and transplantation tolerance. Annu Rev Med;52:353-70;

Wekerle, T., Blaha, P., Asari, R., Schmid, M., Kiss, C., Roth, E. and Mühlbacher, F. 2002. Tolerance induction through mixed chimerism. Europ Surgery;34:131-5;

Wekerle, T., Blaha, P., Langer, F., Schmid, M. and Muehlbacher, F. 2002. Tolerance through bone marrow transplantation with costimulation blockade. Transplant Immunology;9(2-4):125-33; Pii S0966-3274(02)00016-3.Doi 10.1016/S0966-3274(02)00016-3

Wekerle, T., Kurtz, J., Bigenzahn, S., Takeuchi, Y. and Sykes, M. 2002. Mechanisms of transplant tolerance induction using costimulatory blockade. Current Opinion in Immunology;14(5):592-600; Doi 10.1016/S0952-7915(02)00378-3

Wekerle, T., Blaha, P., Koporc, Z., Bigenzahn, S., Pusch, M. and Muehlbacher, F. 2003. Mechanisms of tolerance induction through the transplantation of donor hematopoietic stem cells: central versus peripheral tolerance. Transplantation;75(9 Suppl):21S-5S; 10.1097/01.TP.0000067947.90241.66

Heitger, A., Blaha, P., Bigenzahn, S., Muehlbacher, F. and Wekerle, T. 2004. The influence of immunosuppressive drugs on cell-induced graft tolerance. Curr Opin Organ Transplant;9:307-13;

Kurtz, J., Wekerle, T. and Sykes, M. 2004. Tolerance in mixed chimerism - a role for regulatory cells? Trends Immunol;25(10):518-23; 10.1016/

Saemann, M., Muehlbacher, F., Zlabinger, G. and Wekerle, T. 2004. Selected commentary to: Prevention of organ allograft rejection by a specific Janus kinase 3 inhibitor. Europ Surgery;36:205-6;

Saemann, M. D., Zeyda, M., Stulnig, T., Böhmig, G. A., Wekerle, T., Hörl, W. H. and Zlabinger, G. 2004. Janus kinase-3 (JAK3) inhibition: a new immunosuppressive modality for allogeneic transplantation. Transpl Int;17:481-9;

Wekerle, T. and Sykes, M. 2004. Induction of tolerance. Surgery;135(4):359-64; 10.1016/j.surg.2003.10.010

Pree, I. and Wekerle, T. 2006. New approaches to prevent transplant rejection: Costimulation blockers anti-CD40L and CTLA4Ig. Drug Discovery Today: Therapeutic Strategies;3:41-7;

Bodingbauer, M., Kramar, R., Wekerle, T., Boehmig, G., Berlakovich, G., Saemann, M., Steininger, R., Perco, P., Oberbauer, R., Hoerl, W. and Muehlbacher, F. 2007. Present status at the Vienna transplantation center after four thousand renal transplantations. Clin Transpl:69-80;

Hainz, U., Jurgens, B., Wekerle, T., Seidel, M. G. and Heitger, A. 2007. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Curr Drug Metab;8(3):267-72; 10.2174/138920007780362554

Pree, I., Pilat, N. and Wekerle, T. 2007. Recent progress in tolerance induction through mixed chimerism. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology;144(3):254-66; 10.1159/000104740

Pree, I. and Wekerle, T. 2007. Inducing mixed chimerism and transplantation tolerance through allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with costimulation blockade. In Methods in molecular biology, pp. 391-403

Wekerle, T. 2008. T regulatory cells - what relationship with immunosuppressive agents? Transplant Proc;40:S13-S6;

Baranyi, U., Pilat, N., Gattringer, M. and Wekerle, T. 2009. A chimerism-based approach to induce tolerance in IgE-mediated allergy. Crit Rev Immunol;29(5):379-97; 10.1615/critrevimmunol.v29.i5.20

Dahlke, M. H., Hoogduijn, M., Eggenhofer, E., Popp, F. C., Renner, P., Slowik, P., Rosenauer, A., Piso, P., Geissler, E. K., Lange, C., Chabannes, D., Mazzanti, B., Bigenzahn, S., Bertolino, P., Kunter, U., Introna, M., Rambaldi, A., Capelli, C., Perico, N., Casiraghi, F., Noris, M., Gotti, E., Seifert, M., Saccardi, R., Verspaget, H. W., van Hoek, B., Bartholomew, A., Wekerle, T., Volk, H. D., Remuzzi, G., Deans, R., Lazarus, H., Schlitt, H. J., Baan, C. C. and Group, M. S. 2009. Toward MSC in solid organ transplantation: 2008 position paper of the MISOT study group. Transplantation;88(5):614-9; 10.1097/TP.0b013e3181b4425a

Muller, Y. D., Golshayan, D., Ehirchiou, D., Wekerle, T., Seebach, J. D. and Buhler, L. H. 2009. T regulatory cells in xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation;16(3):121-8; 10.1111/j.1399-3089.2009.00531.x

Pilat, N., Klaus, C., Schwaiger, E. and Wekerle, T. 2009. Hurdles to the induction of tolerogenic mixed chimerism. Transplantation;87(9 Suppl):S79-84; 10.1097/TP.0b013e3181a2b9cc

Pree, I., Pilat, N. and Wekerle, T. 2009. Bone marrow transplantation as a strategy for tolerance inductionin the clinic. Front Biosci;14:611-20;

Pilat, N. and Wekerle, T. 2010. Transplantation tolerance through mixed chimerism. Nature Reviews Nephrology;6(10):594-605; 10.1038/nrneph.2010.110

Pilat, N. and Wekerle, T. 2010. Combining Treg therapy with mixed chimerism: getting the best of both worlds. Chimerism;1(1):26-9;

Pilat, N. and Wekerle, T. 2010. Mechanistic and therapeutic role of regulatory T cells in tolerance through mixed chimerism. Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation;15(6):725-30; 10.1097/MOT.0b013e3283401755

Baranyi, U., Gattringer, M., Valenta, R. and Wekerle, T. 2011. Cell-based therapy in allergy. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol;352:161-79; 10.1007/82_2011_127

Pilat, N., Sayegh, M. H. and Wekerle, T. 2011. Co-stimulatory pathways in transplantation. Sem Immunol;23:293-303;

Pilat, N., Hock, K. and Wekerle, T. 2012. Mixed chimerism through donor bone marrow transplantation: a tolerogenic cell therapy for application in organ transplantation. Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation;17(1):63-70; 10.1097/MOT.0b013e32834ee68b

Pilat, N., Schwarz, C. and Wekerle, T. 2012. Modulating T-cell costimulation as new immunosuppressive concept in organ transplantation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant;17(4):368-75; 10.1097/MOT.0b013e328355fc94

Pilat, N. and Wekerle, T. 2012. Belatacept and Tregs: friends or foes? Immunotherapy;4(4):351-4; 10.2217/imt.12.13

Wekerle, T. and Grinyo, J. M. 2012. Belatacept: from rational design to clinical application. Transpl Int;25(2):139-50; 10.1111/j.1432-2277.2011.01386.x

Baranyi, U., Valenta, R. and Wekerle, T. 2013. Molecular chimerism in IgE-mediated allergy: B-and T-cell tolerance toward highly immunogenic exogenous antigens. Chimerism;4(1):29-31; 10.4161/chim.24071

Mayer, E., Holzl, M., Ahmadi, S., Dillinger, B., Pilat, N., Fuchs, D., Wekerle, T. and Heitger, A. 2013. CTLA4-Ig immunosuppressive activity at the level of dendritic cell/T cell crosstalk. Int Immunopharmacol;15(3):638-45; 10.1016/j.intimp.2013.02.007

Wekerle, T. 2013. Taming the ABO barrier in transplantation. Blood;122(15):2527-8; 10.1182/blood-2013-09-522490

Bohmig, G. A., Farkas, A. M., Eskandary, F. and Wekerle, T. 2015. Strategies to overcome the ABO barrier in kidney transplantation. Nat Rev Nephrol;11(12):732-47; 10.1038/nrneph.2015.144

Hock, K., Mahr, B., Schwarz, C. and Wekerle, T. 2015. Deletional and regulatory mechanisms coalesce to drive transplantation tolerance through mixed chimerism. Eur J Immunol;45(9):2470-9; 10.1002/eji.201545494

Kirk A. D., Malchesky P. S., Shapiro R., Webber S. A., Hirsch H. H., Marty F. M., Oberbauer R., Wekerle T., Buhler L. H., Labbate A., Perry K. and J., W. 2016. Introducing the Wiley Transplant Peer Review Network. Transpl Int;29(8):839-41; 10.1111/tri.12812

Campana, R., Huang, H. J., Freidl, R., Linhart, B., Vrtala, S., Wekerle, T., Karaulov, A. and Valenta, R. 2017. Recombinant allergen and peptide-based approaches for allergy prevention by oral tolerance. Semin Immunol;30:67-80; 10.1016/j.smim.2017.08.017

Mahr, B., Granofszky, N., Muckenhuber, M. and Wekerle, T. 2017. Transplantation Tolerance through Hematopoietic Chimerism: Progress and Challenges for Clinical Translation. Front Immunol;8:1762; 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01762

Mahr, B. and Wekerle, T. 2017. Murine models of transplantation tolerance through mixed chimerism: advances and roadblocks. Clin Exp Immunol;189(2):181-9; 10.1111/cei.12976

Pilat, N., Granofszky, N. and Wekerle, T. 2017. Combining Adoptive Treg Transfer with Bone Marrow Transplantation for Transplantation Tolerance. Curr Transplant Rep;4(4):253-61; 10.1007/s40472-017-0164-7

Wekerle, T. 2017. Immune tolerance in transplantation. Clin Exp Immunol;189(2):133-4; 10.1111/cei.12994

Wekerle, T. 2017. T Cell Subsets Predicting Belatacept-Resistant Rejection: Finding the Root Where the Trouble Starts. Am J Transplant;17(9):2235-7; 10.1111/ajt.14390

Wekerle, T., Segev, D., Lechler, R. and Oberbauer, R. 2017. Strategies for long-term preservation of kidney graft function. Lancet;389(10084):2152-62; 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31283-7

Thomas Wekerle | © MedUni Wien/feelimage


Professor of Transplantation Immunology

Tel.: +43 (0)1 40400-39380

Kerstin Pöschl | © MedUni Wien/feelimage

Kerstin Pöschl, MSc

Office 9F
Tel.: +43 (0)1 40400-39381
Fax: +43 (0)1 40400-39382
Room 09.F9.13